The simple tally of physical acts is typically found to be similar in those studies that examine both directions, but some studies show that male violence may be more serious.
Male violence may do more damage than female violence; A research article published in the Journal of Family Psychology, "Estimating the Number of American Children Living in Partner-Violent Families", says that contrary to media and public opinion women commit more acts of violence than men in eleven categories: throw something, push, grab, shove, slap, kick, bite, hit or threaten a partner with a knife or gun.
In 2009, for homicides in which the victim to offender relationship could be identified, 93% of female victims were murdered by a male they knew, 63% of them in the context of an intimate relationship. In the United States, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in 1995 women reported a six times greater rate of intimate partner violence than men, suggesting either higher levels of violence by men, higher levels of reporting by women, or disproportionate response by law enforcement.
Of those killed by an intimate partner, about three quarters are female and about a quarter are male.
In 1999 in the United States, 1,218 women and 424 men were killed by an intimate partner, Dating violence is often a precursor to domestic violence.
Many scholarly studies of the problem have stated that is often part of a dynamic of control and oppression in relationships, regularly involving multiple forms of physical and non-physical abuse taking place concurrently.
Intimate terrorism, an ongoing, complicated use of control, power and abuse in which one person tries to assert systematic control over another psychologically.